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Plantagenet Princess, Tudor Queen: The Story of Elizabeth of York

Written by Samantha Wilcoxson

Published by CreateSpace

Review by Charlie Britten

4quills

 

Elizabeth of York, daughter of Yorkist Edward IV of England, was married to Henry VIII, a Lancastrian, in 1486, as a peace-offering, following the Wars of the Roses.  The Plantagenet Princess, Tudor Queen (published August 2015) chronicles Elizabeth’s life, from six years old until her death aged thirty-seven, after having borne Henry eight children, five of whom predeceased her, including the last, baby Katherine Tutor, to whom Elizabeth had given birth nine days previously.  Elizabeth lived in turbulent times.  She grew up amidst constant internecine war, battles, hostage-taking, rebellions and political executions – the stuff of Shakespeare’s history plays – and King Henry, whose claim to the throne was tenuous, was under constant threat of insurrection.  Her mother, Elizabeth Woodville, whom she called ‘Lady Mother’, was a social climber and the canniest political schemer of her age; she carried on plotting for the Yorkists long after her daughter had become queen, until she was sent away to Bermondsey Abbey – and even that didn’t stop her.  Elizabeth of York’s brothers were the Princes in the Tower, murdered – allegedly – by King Richard III, although, according to Wilcoxson, Elizabeth had a brief fling with Richard prior to her marriage and never could believe in Richard’s guilt.  (I suspect the author herself of being a Richard III-er.)  So, lots and lots of conflict here, and great potential for a sensational blockbuster.

This, however, was not Samantha Wilcoxson’s style.  The Plantagenet Princess, Tudor Queen is a biography, not a novel and not Hollywood fodder.  Wilcoxson did her research well in that she managed to get under the skin of the age, how people thought and behaved, particularly women.  The fifteenth century was an overtly religious age, a Catholic age.  Wilcoxson never demurred from showing us how Elizabeth, her ladies and her sisters, prayed in every situation, kneeling before an altar in church, before they took any practical action, even as a substitute for practical action.  The author enters into the expectations of fifteenth century women, having Elizabeth’s sister, Cecily, say, in so many words, that she wanted to know who she was to marry and could Henry please let her know.  Elizabeth has to make some compromises, the biggest concerning her simple-minded cousin being a prisoner in the Tower.  Wilcoxson shows Elizabeth, who was known not to be interested in politics, to be ladylike in an old fashioned sense, a devoted wife and mother.

Wilcoxson does not attempt to write the dialogue in Tudor English; if she had, the book would have been very difficult to read, although she might have thrown we readers a passing contemporary word or phrase.  Instead, she wrote the whole biography in modern idiomatic American English, including Merriam-Webster spellings and words such as ‘fall’ and ‘normalcy’ (ouch!).  ‘Autumn’ and ‘normality’ would have been much more appropriate for the biography of an English queen. 

My other issue is Wilcoxon’s unusual perspective on child development.  Whereas one appreciates that children behaved and thought differently in the fifteenth century, Elizabeth’s appreciation of the political situation at the age of six is not believable, nor is her recourse to prayer at that age, whatever may have been written by chroniclers and other primary sources This misunderstanding manifested itself throughout the book, in three year old’s Arthur’s regal bearing during his investiture as Prince of Wales, for instance.

Overall, however, I recommend this biography, of an important, but overlooked, character in English history. 

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Charlie Britten has contributed to FictionAtWorkThe Short Humour SiteMslexiaLinnet’s WingsCafeLit, and Radgepacket.  She writes because she loves doing it and belongs to two British online writing communities.

All Charlie’s work is based in reality, with a strong human interest element.  Although much of her work is humorous, she has also written serious fiction, about the 7/7 Bombings in London and attitudes to education before the Second World War.

Charlie Britten lives in southern England with her husband and cat.  In real life, she is an IT lecturer at a college of further education.

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Sudden Death

Written by Álvaro Enrigue

Translated by Natasha Wimmer
Published by Riverbed Books

Review by Cynthia C. Scott

5 quills
 
 
 
Novelist Álvaro Enrigue returns with his fifth novel Sudden Death in a new English translation by Natasha Wimmer. Published in Spain in 2013, it won the 31st Herralde Novel Prize for its monumental yet intimate examinations about the cultural and political revolutions that swept through Europe and the New World during the Counter-Reformation. Considered among a distinguished list of Mexican writers that include Enrique Vila-Matas, Javier Marías, Juan Villoro, and Roberto Bolaño, Enrigue was awarded the Joaquín Mortiz Prize for his 1996 debut novel La muerte de un instalador, which was also named one of the key novels in Mexico in the twenty-first century. His novels, which also include Hipotermia and Vidas perpediculares, are experimental treatises on the disjointed, unreliable nature of narrative. Sudden Death follows in that same vein.
 
Sudden Death features a dizzying cast of historical figures that includes Caravaggio, Spanish poet Francisco de Quevedo, Hernán Cortéz and his Mayan translator and lover Malitzen (La Malinche), Galileo, and many others. However it’s central conceit revolves around a tennis match between the Lombard artist and the poet and how its outcome will change the course of history. While that might seem a bit hyperbolic, it cannot be overstated that Caravaggio, whose monumental works include The Martyrdom of St. Matthew and The Calling of St. Matthew, did revolutionize painting, giving birth to modern art with his bold use of light and naturalism, and bridging the Mannerism and the Baroque movements in Europe. Yet Caravaggio’s scandalous and often violent personal life (he fled Italy in 1606 after being sentenced to death for killing a young man) and his visionary work are fitting analogies for the cultural and political upheavals unfolding during the Counter-Reformation.
 
The Caravaggio and de Quevedo we meet are crude and sexually adventurous men whose creative energies move off the pages and the canvasses into their personal lives. Caravaggio is still a struggling artist who makes a living by playing tennis matches for bets and commissioned artwork for Cardinal Francesco Del Monte and banking heir Vincenzo Giustiniani. De Quevedo’s friend the Duke of Osuna, who shares the poet’s readiness for “insatiable urges,” was the catalyst for their flight to Italy after the Duke’s three separate scandalous trials. There, in Rome, both artists engage in a battle of tennis, wits, and sexual tension. Watching and betting on the matches are another circle of players which include two of Caravagggio’s lovers, Galileo and Mary Magdalene––a prostitute model who is featured in Martha and Mary Magdalene––as well as back alley drunkards, gamblers, and louts. Enrigue describes the scenes with an eye for satire. “He recognized them: [Mary Magdalene’s breasts] were, of course, the most defiant pair of tits in the history of art.”
 
The match itself would be compelling and absurdly funny on its own, but Enrigue ties the fates of the two men to the larger world canvas. The tennis ball they use during the matches is made out of the hair shorn from the severed head of Anne Boleyn, one of four of “the most luxurious sporting equipment of the Renaissance.” A scapular de Quevedo wears under his clothes was woven from the hairs of the last Aztec emperor who was tortured and ordered executed by Cortéz during his brutal conquest of the Americas. Through this and other objet d’art Enrigue is able to spin his tale outward in sketches, segments, and excerpts from other works, crossing both time and space to introduce historical characters and the political, cultural, and religious movements that shaped the modern world. 
 
Aside from Caravaggio and de Quevedo, Cortéz and Malitzen, whose schemes lead to the destruction of the Aztec empire, the bishop who uses Thomas More’s satirical novel Utopia as a guide to build New Spain, and Francesco Maria del Monte who would become Pope Pius IV form the other compelling tales in the novel. In the middle of it all is the author himself, acting as literary curator archiving Boleyn’s balls, Caravaggio’s art, sixteenth century Spanish dictionaries on the rules and nomenclature of tennis, and other historical objects that breathe life into the past. As the novel progresses, collecting more characters, artifacts, and memories, Enrigue returns to the tennis match to balance out his many diversions. 
 
Natasha Wimmer, who translated Bolaño’s work, does an excellent job in retaining the playfulness in Enrigue’s prose, creating in English a lament that never fails to illuminate the author’s intent: 
 
The rest of infinite America still had no inkling that over the next two hundred years, dozens of thousand-year old cultures that had flourished in isolation, without contamination or means of defense, would inexorably be trashed. Not that it matters: nothing matters. Species are extinguished, children leave home, friends turn up with impossible girlfriends, cultures disappear, languages are one day no longer spoken; those who survive convince themselves that they were the most fit.
 
It would be easy to reduce Sudden Death to a story about the destruction that precedes the rise and collapse of empires and cultures, but the novel is much more than that. Its real purpose is to question narratives, both historical and fictional. As Enrigue writes with an air of resignation and uncertainty, “I don’t know what this book is about. I know that as I wrote it I was angry because the bad guys always win.” In the end, he concludes that “[t]he honest thing is to relay my doubts and let the conversation move one step forward: the readers may know better.” And that is where the heart of the novel rests: its trust in readers.
 
As an historical novel, Sudden Death is a deeply ruminative and wickedly absurd examination of art and history that deserves your attention. It will leave you wondering about narrative, the stories we choose to tell, and how they shape our understanding of the modern world. 
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Cynthia C. Scott is a freelance writer whose fiction, reviews, and essays have appeared in Hakai Magazine, Graze Magazine, Flyleaf Journal, eFiction, Rain Taxi, Bright Lights Film Journal, Strange Horizon, and others. She’s a lifelong resident of the San Francisco Bay Area.

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A Place in the World

Written by Cinda Crabbe Mackinnon

Published by Virtual Bookworm

Review by Charlie Britten

3quills

 

Born to American parents working in the diplomatic service, Alicia Collier has never felt sufficiently settled in any one place to call it home. The nearest she comes to it is during her teenage years in Bogota, Columbia, so, when she has to move back to the US, to university in Virginia, she falls for the only Latino around, Jorge Carvallo. At the first opportunity, Alicia rushes back to Columbia, believing Jorge’s vague promise of a job in tropical biology at Bogota University, only to find that no such post exists and that, in that continent, women’s careers are considered not to be important. Alicia and Jorge, now married and expecting a baby, move to a remote coffee plantation, Las Nubes, on the edge of the rainforest, which Jorge is supposed to manage for the family business. At first all is well, but, with the responsibilities of parenthood and financial problems caused by volcanic ash (ceniza) suffocating the coffee plants, Jorge becomes restless, setting off on a Che Guevera motorbike trip. Alicia, on the other hand, cannot bear to leave the coffee plantation, because at last she’s found somewhere she belongs.

A Place in the World encompasses the late 1960s through to the end of the twentieth century. The story arc is straightforward, albeit understated against a backdrop of volcanic eruptions, bandits, narcos, wild animals and, above all, the ever present danger of getting lost in the rainforest. Many things might have happened yet didn’t; the author, who is herself an American environmental scientist, did not go in for hype or thrills. This is a very honest novel, which seeks to chronicle a young woman’s battle with old fashioned social attitudes and male waywardness, her battle to keep the plantation going, against the elements and accepted ways of working which went against what she understood about ecology. Viewed negatively, you could say that this is a story about an American woman who came to sort out the backward Latinos, but that view would have to be balanced against Alicia’s love of all things South American and her acceptance of indigenous people and their way of life. I read this book because, with my son is currently in Columbia, I wanted to get the feel of Latin America and Cinda Crabbe Mackinnon did just that.

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Charlie Britten has contributed to FictionAtWorkThe Short Humour SiteMslexiaLinnet’s WingsCafeLit, and Radgepacket.  She writes because she loves doing it and belongs to two British online writing communities.

All Charlie’s work is based in reality, with a strong human interest element.  Although much of her work is humorous, she has also written serious fiction, about the 7/7 Bombings in London and attitudes to education before the Second World War.

Charlie Britten lives in southern England with her husband and cat.  In real life, she is an IT lecturer at a college of further education.

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The Photographer’s Wife

Written by Nick Alexander

Published by Bigfib Books

Review by Charlie Britten

3quills

 

Sophie, a struggling fashion photographer, is organising a retrospective of the work of her late father, Anthony Marsden, a famous art photographer of the Swinging Sixties. Her problem is winning the cooperation of her grumpy and withdrawn mother, Barbara, who has stashed much of his work away in her attic. What Sophie doesn’t appreciate is that Barbara has withheld the many painful truths about her father, his photography, his companions and events in Sophie’s own childhood. As she pig-headedly digs out the photos she needs, Sophie is too wrapped up in her own sanitised version of her Anthony Marsden, art photography icon, and her ghastly boyfriend, Brett, with his puerile sexual preferences, to be aware of what she is revealing, or to care about the pain she is making Barbara relive.

The storyline is well-executed, with hooks and twists skilfully planted, building up to a gradual, and believable, reveal, even though, at times, Nick Alexander found it necessary to ‘tell’, rather than show, the reader exactly what is going on. Being a child during the London Blitz has made Barbara emotionally resilient, but with low aspirations. All she wanted was a man who could provide for her, and a family, not all the baggage of the Swinging Sixties. When complications and aspirations came her way through Tony Marsden, she dealt with them all phlegmatically, his inadequacies as a man, a husband and as a photographer. Of course, Barbara is the real hero of this story, but she is not an attractive character, nor is Sophie, a supercilious art snob. Brett is repulsive, Tony irritating and predictable, and none of the other characters won me over. Even though each character is well drawn, well understood by the author and distinct from each other, it is difficult to enjoy a book when you can’t warm to anyone on the page.

______________________________________________________________

Charlie Britten has contributed to FictionAtWorkThe Short Humour SiteMslexiaLinnet’s WingsCafeLit, and Radgepacket.  She writes because she loves doing it and belongs to two British online writing communities.

All Charlie’s work is based in reality, with a strong human interest element.  Although much of her work is humorous, she has also written serious fiction, about the 7/7 Bombings in London and attitudes to education before the Second World War.

Charlie Britten lives in southern England with her husband and cat.  In real life, she is an IT lecturer at a college of further education.

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Battle Lines: A Graphic History of the Civil War

Written by Jonathan Fetter-Vorm and Ari Kelman

214 pages

Published by Hill and Wang

Review by Brian Burmeister

5 quills

 

One hundred and fifty years after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, the President’s legacy and the Civil War itself continue to fascinate our nation. As Battle Lines points out in its preface: more books have been written about the Civil War than days have transpired since its end. (Some 10,000 more, in fact.) Amidst so much information about that era, how then can a book stand out as remarkable?

By encompassing a wide section of time and a wide range of issues, graphic novelist Jonathan Fetter-Vorm and historian Ari Kelman have created a text which gives life and meaning to the years surrounding the American Civil War. Instead of just a history, Battle Lines gives us the stories of people’s daily lives, challenges, and hopes for the future.

Organized in 15 chapters, the book closely examines specific moments in time, ranging from the years leading up to the War through the years immediately after. To assist with grounding the reader in the realities of each moment, every chapter begins with the front page of a newspaper. Through the mechanism of these introductions, the reader is given the necessary context for the stories that follow. From these clippings, one learns of the political climate and the war efforts—all valuable information to set the stage for the stories at the heart of Battle Lines. Whereas the newspaper introductions focus on the major moments, the major players, the events and the people school children are taught about in classrooms all across the U.S., the focus of each chapter is on the War’s unsung heroes and forgotten villains, the everyday people who lived during this difficult chapter for America.

I was greatly impressed with the care Fetter-Vorm and Kelman took in being as true as possible to history. Inspired by surviving photographs, letters, and objects, the stories in Battle Lines hope to be as true to life as possible and, as the authors write in their introduction, “These . . . are the faces of the war. These are the stories behind the statistics.” These stories are compelling, powerful, and moving. They highlight that the War was many things to many people. We see stories of women’s roles as nurses at the front lines. We see the class struggles that erupted into violence in New York City. We see slaves escaping in the night after the announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation. Through the book’s 15 chapters we see a fine representation of the issues of the time (during the buildup to the War, the War itself, and the Reconstruction), issues that affected different regions, different races, different genders. The book gives voice to the voiceless: forgotten figures of our past, whose powerful stories show us that the Civil War was as complicated as it was deadly.

While the realities of the war were violent and gruesome, Fetter-Vorm does a wonderful job establishing the grim realities of war, including the tragic loss of life and limb, without overwhelming the reader with unpalatable levels of gore. This balance was masterfully done; while one might call the art in Battle Lines a PG-13 version of the horrors of war, one cannot read Battle Lineswithout feeling the Civil War was one of the most heartbreaking eras of the American story.

In general, the art itself is beautiful. Despite the comic nature, each drawing is realistic, giving each person unique attributes and clear emotions. Additionally, the simple, muted color palate gives each chapter a feeling of unity, as well as a somber tone.

Battle Lines is an absorbing, attractive, and haunting book. For anyone with a strong desire to learn more about the Civil War, or anyone looking for a graphic history with real heart, I simply cannot recommend the book enough.

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Brian Burmeister (@bdburmeister) is Program Chair of English and Communication at Ashford University. He is an ongoing contributor to the Sport Literature Association and Cleaver Magazine.

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Kettle Bottom

Written by Diane Gilliam Fisher

Published by Perugia Press, Florence, MA

Review by Carole Mertz

5 quills

 

In her chapbook of fifty weighty poems, most of which are prose poems, Diane Gilliam Fisher gives us the bleak history of coal miners’ lives and travails during the period of the West Virginian miners’ wars of 1920-21.

Most commendable in this collection is the ring of authenticity in the poet’s voice and the way she has captured the slang and often grammatically ill-constructed sentences of the coal-mining poor, voices which carry a poetry of their own. None of the lines are rhymed, and Fisher employs few poetical devices, but her eloquent tone is present throughout.

In “Ironing,” we read:

I does it. All the rest, too, I ain’t white— 

 scrub the clothes when they dirty, 

 feed the children when they hungry, comb 

 the cinders out of they heads when the train 

 blast by, spewing like a devil out of the hind end 

of Hell…

A miner speaks in “The Rocks Down Here”: First hour of every shift down in the mine, / shakes and cold sweats worse’n the grippe / that near took me last spring. / Past that, I begin to feel easy-like, / moving through the dark.

In poem after poem, Fisher, who, perhaps ironically, holds an advanced degree in Romance Languages and Literature, captures precisely the sparse language and poetry of the miners, their wives, and children. A young girl speaks in the poem, “Pearlie Asks Her Mama What Poontang Means .” 

Mama says to don’t tell Daddy, for he

would have to go after them men that spoke

to me that way, and God only knows 

what would happen then…

them men has put murder in my heart.

Looking back, we can appreciate the astounding contributions these struggling, overworked, undervalued and blackened miners handed to our country. They carved out of the earth the energy source the U.S. needed to continue its industrial sprouting and feed its steamships and steam-operated rail lines; they delivered this energy, almost mutely, out of the sweat of their coal-darkened bodies, with little reward for themselves.

A sixth grader reports in the poem “What History Means to Me:”

“…before we was West Virginia and was only the Endless / Mountains of Virginia. [Aunt Mandy] has put it to me like this. First / the railroads come and lots of  fancy pants forriners trying / to buy up ever little creek and holler and home place they set / their thieving eyes on. Then the timber men come, took the / oak and yellow poplar, wrecked the rivers and left. Collieries / come and stayed, but the coal and the money went. What it / means to us is a lot of dead husbands and caved-in bellies…” 

Each poem in this collection moved me. But the composite created an impression not soon forgotten. In “1920, Winco Coal Camp,” we witness a three-fold loss.

My third-eldest brother, Robert Warren, went in 

the mine at sixteen. We’d buried Daddy three days before,

right next to Alma, for even though Daddy had sold 

mineral rights to Stone Mountain Coal, he would not

sign till they wrote in the paper how we’d always 

have use of the burying ground. The Company 

told Mama it was a kettle bottom took Daddy. They say

that a lot—kettle bottom, they figure, ain’t nobody’s fault. 

They give Robert Warren Daddy’s tools, and his number,

  1. Put him to work in the same room. Roof 

sounded hollow, Robert Warren said, but he couldn’t see 

where no kettle bottom had fell through. He had twelve

days in the hole when his section caved. Company says

couldn’t nobody have lived, says they can’t go in 

for the bodies without risking more men…

Fisher organizes her poems carefully. They lead us to the miners’ breaking point. In reaction to  the “gun thugs,” as the miners called the agents sent to enforce company policy and spy out any union activity, violence erupted and became the Matewan Massacre of May, 1920. Men on both sides of the struggle were killed.

The miners eventually contributed to unionized power, after the severe test of the Battle of Blair Mountain. In that confrontation, the men ultimately chose not to fight against uniformed government soldiers with whom, side-by-side and wearing the same uniform, they’d so recently fought in the First World War. (The United Mine Workers of America, begun in 1890 in Columbus, Ohio, did not achieve collective bargaining rights for its workers, however, until 1933, nor health benefits until 1946.)

In “One Voice,” the poet draws on a pastor’s sermon, to strong effect:

Did not John the Baptist

say unto the people, Let him who hath two coats 

impart unto him that hath none? Any operators

stop you on your way to church this morning

and impart? Any of you leave a child

at home, on account of it wasn’t their turn

with the coat?

“Raven Light,” one of the most powerful poems in the collection, also uses a Biblical excerpt. A miner reflects, “When I was a boy, I liked the story of Jonah. / He done right, I thought. If God / meant to send him to a evil place, / why shouldn’t he get on a boat / and head the other way? I bet Nineveh / was run by folks like Stone Mountain Coal…”

A schoolgirl tries not to defy in “A Book Report, by Pearlie Webb”:

“First off, I do not understand what a book report is for . It   

 seems to me books is to read , and it is the author’s job to 

 write . Second off, I do not believe being extra smart, as you 

 said I am and that is why I have to write this book report, 

 should mean a person has got to do extra work. But I was   

 not raised in a barn, my mama has taught me do not sass, 

so I will write my book report as I am told.”

A lively oral history of the life of miners exists and is carried through time by the spoken word and song. Fisher’s sad, but beautiful, poems deserve to be read aloud and thereby contribute to that precious oral tradition. As a history, Kettle Bottom is commendable; as a book of poetry, it deserves to be treasured in its own right.

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Carole Mertz has reviews and essays in Arc Poetry Magazine, Ascent Aspirations, Copperfield Review, The Conium Review, Capper’s, Mom Egg Review, Tiny Lights Journal, Working Writer, and World Literature Today. Her poems appeared in Every Day Poems, Page & Spine, Rockford Review, WestWard Quarterly, and in various anthologies. Her poem won the June 2015 Wilda Morris Poetry Challenge. Carole trusts the power of the pen to influence, in large ways or small, the direction our country takes today. She writes in Parma, Ohio.

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The Old Boys: The Decline and Rise of the Public School

Written by David Turner

Published by Yale Press

Review by Charlie Britten

2quills

 

Every British schoolboy or schoolgirl is desperate to go to boarding school at some time in their life, tantalised by Enid Blyton’s Mallory Towers series (girls), Anthony Buckeridge’s Jennings series (boys) and more recently by Harry Potter (both sexes). The Old Boys, published in March 2015 and written by David Turner, former education correspondent for the Financial Times, is not about ‘jolly japes’, but a very serious, thorough and well-researched account of the British public school system from the very first such establishment – Winchester College, founded in 1394 – to the present day.

Winchester, like many public schools that followed it, started out with charitable intentions, as a free educational facility for boys from poor families, subsidised by commoners who did pay fees. Of course, the commoners rapidly overtook the non-fee payers in numbers and in status, with the result that, within a hundred years, public schools had become the place where arrivistes with money but without noble status or connections could purchase the latter, alongside a classical education. The Old Boys chronicles riots by boys, bullying and poor accommodation. Many of the problems which beset schools today were present from the beginning: huge class sizes, with teachers frequently asked to supervise two classes at once; the standard of teaching on offer being so poor that parents hire extra tutors; well-connected parents making a nuisance of themselves to teachers until their darlings were awarded better grades.

Although Turner’s work includes a lot of fascinating information, backed up by excellent primary sources, his treatment of the topic is disorganised and off-putting. The book starts in an uninviting way, with some long captions to illustrations, which don’t have much meaning as the illustrations are not displayed with them. Chapters are very long and, although the book attempts to tell the story of British public schools in chronological order, rather than by topic, the result is meandering. For instance, the reader is amidst a discussion of the impact of sport on the curriculum when suddenly we move on to homosexuality. Turner does not discuss girls’ public schools in any great detail, but that is not the brief he set himself.

Although The Old Boys has been promoted for the ‘general interest’ genre, it is, in truth, one for academic historians.

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Charlie Britten is a contributing reviewer for The Copperfield Review.

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The Cunning Man: A Hippo Yeoman Anthology

Written by John Yeoman

Published by Amazon

Review by Charlie Britten

3quills

 

Published in December 2014, The Cunning Man is a collection of historical crime stories featuring the impoverished Elizabethan apothecary, Hippo Yeoman, whose sideline is solving mysteries. The crimes he is required to solve include the theft of a bowl from a locked room which it is ‘impossible’ to enter, the plight of a milliner faced with ruin because she can’t read Latin, vandalism of books and a dead man found in a privy built for the personal use of Good Queen Bess in anticipation of a Royal Visit which never happens. The writer moves Hippo around sixteenth century London with the sort of assurance that is based upon sound research, and occasionally brings some real people into his plots, including William Camden, headmaster of Westminster School and author, and well-known courtiers.

It is curious that the main character has the same surname as the pen-name of the author, John Yeoman. (I gather from his website that this is not his real name.) I didn’t warm to the protagonist Hippo Yeoman. He isn’t smug or a know-it-all (as detectives can be) or have other obvious vices, except a tendency to whinge, especially about his poverty. The problem is more that his character is not clearly defined, with the result that I didn’t get to know him.

Hippo also appears in two novels, Dream of Darkness and Fear of Evil (both published in January 2015) and in another short story, “The Hog Lane Murders” (published in February 2015). As well as being there for the reading, these works, which John Yeoman calls ‘fictionals’, include footnotes hyperlinked to what he calls ‘clever tips’ – for writers – about how they were written. Each story has about twenty such footnotes, all of which are easily accessed using my classic Kindle, although obviously this sort of interactivity would be no use on a printed version. The ‘tips’ provided by John Yeoman, who runs the writing website ‘Writers Village’, are pitched at a beginners/improvers level and often appear to reflect his personal opinion, as in, for instance, ‘Humour is a dangerous thing. Too many one liners and the author leaps out of the story, grinning at us…’ Although many of the footnotes are insightful, his approach to writing is mechanistic, with lots of named tools such as ‘The Indispensable Incident’ and ‘a character signature’, which could lead those following his tips to write technically correct literature bogged down in technicalities. Nevertheless it’s a clever idea and good use of multimedia.

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 Charlie Britten is a contributing reviewer for The Copperfield Review.

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The Amber Keeper

Written by Freda Lightfoot

Published by Amazon Publishing (Lake Union Imprint)

Review by Charlie Britten

 3quills

Millie’s life changed forever in 1911, when she became governess to Countess Olga Belinsky’s children.   One of the most evil characters ever to appear between book covers, a woman who refused to breastfeed her howling, newborn baby, Countess Belinsky defines this novel.   Sexually voracious, manipulative, spiteful, greedy and self-serving, I believe that Freda Lightfoot created her as an allegory for everything that was wrong in Imperial Russia.   Her husband, Count Vasily, on the other hand, was a sweet, public-spirited man, in the mould of Levin in Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina.

This is a novel with two settings and two casts of characters, one featuring Millie in St Petersburg during the Russian Revolution, and the other Millie’s granddaughter, Abigail, in the English Lake District in 1963.   The Russian thread was as harsh and unrelenting as the steppe, with the workers’ anger bubbling beneath the veneer of tinkling sleigh-bells and fur-lined hats.   By contrast, Abigail’s was about her making peace with her family, after having eloped with a French chef – family saga stuff, much gentler.   However, despite a tinny transistor playing Please, Please Me in chapter one, this reader didn’t pick up a 1960s feel.

Freda Lightfoot has written over forty family sagas and historical novels, featuring northern England during the first half of the twentieth century.   This was the first one set outside her own country, but it was thoroughly researched, including details like St Petersburg tram drivers refusing to permit the poorer people to board their vehicles because they assumed they were drunk all the time.   Although the Tsar and Tsarina became real when the Belinskys referred to them as Nicky and Alix, Freda’s accounts of the course of the Revolution were too long and factual, often leaving her characters as onlookers.

The Amber Keeper title is enigmatic.   Is it to remind the reader of the Amber Room in the Hermitage in St Petersburg, or of Abigail designing and selling jewellery?  But, as the novel progresses, the amber connection is revealed, closing the gap between Millie’s story and Abigail’s.   Countess Belinsky’s nastiness pervades to the very end.

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Charlie Britten has contributed to  Every Day FictionMslexiaLinnet’s WingsCafeLit, and Radgepacket. She has also written a couple of book reviews for Copperfield Review. She writes because she loves doing it.

All Charlie’s work is based in reality, with a strong human interest element.  Although much of her work is humorous, she has also written serious fiction, about the 7/7 Bombings in London and attitudes to education before the Second World War. Charlie lives in southern England with her husband and cat. In real life, she is an IT lecturer at a college of further education. Charlie’s blog, ‘Write On’, is at  http://charliebritten.wordpress.com/.

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The Paying Guests

Written by Sarah Waters

Published by Riverhead

Review by Michelle Pretorius

4quills

 

 

In the tradition of her earlier historical works, such as Tipping the Velvet and The Night Watch, Sarah Waters’s latest novel, The Paying Guests, scrutinizes the British class system and the treatment and restrictions placed on women, especially lesbians. Waters gives the reader a claustrophobic view of daily life in 1922 London, a city whose population is still reeling from the devastating effects of World War I. We experience this world through the eyes of Frances Wray, a twenty-six-year-old “upper-class” spinster. Frances and her mother are left almost penniless after the death of her father, who had made a number of ill-advised investments, and are forced to take in lodgers, referred to as paying guests, in order to make ends meet.

A section of the house is converted into an apartment and a working-class couple, Leonard and Lillian Barber, move into the Wray home. Frances and her mother are painfully aware of the Barbers’ presence, noting every creak and social taboo, seeing it as an invasion they must endure in order to survive. Waters humorously conveys the discomfort of both classes in their confined environment while highlighting the superficial deference that the status of the upper class confers. The characters are grounded in the period by vivid details and nuanced speech patterns, with which Waters expertly illuminates their different experiences in British society.

A friendship develops between Frances and Lillian. The two women spend time together during the day while Leonard, a clerk, is at work and Mrs. Wray volunteers at church. Lillian and Leonard’s marriage is not a happy one, and the cracks soon become visible to Frances. She is also aware of her growing physical attraction to Lillian. It is only after Frances reveals her past love affair with a woman that Lillian reciprocates these feelings. Waters is known for her frank portrayal of lesbian sex, but, far from being gratuitous, the explicit scenes in The Paying Guests aid in the depiction of two people who are in love and who face overwhelming odds because of their gender and sexual orientation.

Lillian discovers she is pregnant just as the two lovers decide to break away from their constrictive circumstances to start a life together. The pregnancy sets a chain of events in motion, culminating in a trial that puts the two women’s continued relationship in doubt. Through the descriptions of the criminal investigation and court proceedings, Waters holds a mirror up to current sensationalism while delivering an engrossing glimpse into the machinations of the criminal justice system in Britain at the time.

Waters mercilessly tightens the screws on her two main characters at every turn, placing the implications of their love in this time period under a magnifying glass. The Paying Guests is an engrossing read that makes us conscious of how far the equal rights movement has come and of the freedoms we too often take for granted.

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Michelle Pretorius was born and raised in South Africa and has lived in London, New York and the Midwest. She holds an MFA from Columbia College Chicago and is currently a PhD candidate in Creative Writing at Ohio University.

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